Dementia – symptoms and treatment

Medical Word 2021; 2(2): 68–71

Review Article


Dementia is defined as an acquired and permanent disorder of mental abilities of rich etiology that impairs the patient’s functionality. There is a disorder in the following intellectual spheres: memory, speech, perception, orientation in time and space, thinking, etc., which worsen over time.

Determining the cause of dementia is of great importance for treatment and requires a detailed clinical examination and additional examinations. Among the causes are diseases of the brain, as well as all other diseases that lead to permanent loss of nerve cells. Because neurons do not regenerate over time, disease progression occurs, as well as deterioration in cognition, behavior, and activities of daily living.

Forgetfulness is not always a sign of illness, and if the condition does not worsen for at least six months and does not lead to disturbances in the profession and daily work, it is most likely not initial dementia.

The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. There are drugs that can slow down the progression of the disease and improve intellectual functioning to some extent. Because of the disease, patients need more and more help. The environment and family need to provide emotional support on a daily basis, which is very important to them in reducing fears, depression, and feelings of abandonment.

Key words: dementia, cognitive functions, emotional support, forgetfulness

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