Review article

Miodrag Savović, Svetlana Bogdanović




Bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. There is a balance between the process of bone formation and action. Osteoporosis occurs when the process of bone mass loss is faster than the process of regeneration. The disease affects both men and women, especially women entering menopause, the elderly population, white race. An important role is played by a decreased level of gonadal steroid hormones, increased levels of thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid hormones, as well as low calcium levels and nutritional disorders. The risk of osteoporosis is higher in chronic diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, gastroesophageal reflux, rheumatoid arthritis, malignant diseases, and lupus. Patients who use corticosteroids and antiepileptic drugs for a long time are also at risk. Complications of osteoporosis are bone fractures, especially of the spinal vertebrae and hips. Prevention of osteoporosis involves a quality diet, regular physical activity, and intake of sufficient amounts of calcium and vitamin D. Treatment of osteoporosis includes the use of bisphosphonate drugs.

Key words: osteoporosis, calcium, hormones

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